Palang Merah Indonesia

Kemanusiaan, Kesamaan, Kenetralan, Kemandirian, Kesukarelaan, Kesatuan, Kesemestaan

Rabu, 03 Desember 2008


Rekan-rekan Mappers PMI dan mungkin juga rekan-rekan yang lainnya. mungkin rekan-rekan setelah mengalami kesulitan dalam istilah didalam PGIS sekarang akan lebih terbantu dengan adanga kamus ini, kamus ini saya ambil dari blog dimana blog tersebut merupakan blog dari acuan para mappers PMI

Absolute location: A point on the Earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system, such as latitude and longitude, or UTM.
Aggregation: A form of generalization that involves representing several similar nearby features (such as gardens or rock-piles) as a single, larger feature on a map.
Air photographs or aerial photographs: Remote-sensing photographs taken from an airplane.
Almanac: A continuously updated collection of data that a GPS receiver uses to determine the positions of the GPS satellites when it calculates coordinates.
Area feature: Something on the land - such as a plantation, hunting area, marsh, or lake - large enough to be depicted at scale on a map (shown with a polygon).
Asset allocation mapping (AAM): this enables communities to make informed decisions over the allocation of their territorial assets. To do this, they need not only to arrive at their own evaluations of these assets but also to understand the multiple values assigned to their assets by others: to map the ways in which assets are perceived, evaluated, imagined by an unfamiliar and mutating array of external interests (source: Peter Poole).
Attribute data: Information about a feature on a map or thematic information.
Azimuth: The angle (often in degrees) that a certain direction (to a landmark, for example) is from the north meridian at a certain place.


Base map: A map that contains geographical reference information on which attribute data may be plotted to make thematic maps.
Bearing: A directional measurement taken by an observer, or the measured angle (often in degrees) between the north meridian and the line joining the observer and the object. Directions or azimuths are bearings.
Blueprinting: An inexpensive method for replicating black-and-white drawings, such as maps. that have been drawn on translucent paper, through the use of a blueprinting machine.


Cartography: The art or science of making maps.
Clinometer: A device for measuring slope angles.
Cognitive map: a term introduced in the 30s by pioneer learning researcher, Edward Tolman, to describe what rats must have in their minds to successfully navigate mazes when routes are blocked or explored from different points. Although learning is from traversing routes, mental representations appear to integrate route experience into survey or overview knowledge. The term has been extended to humans to mean a schematic mental representation of the geographic world, usually the network of paths and nodes that enable navigation. The nature, coherence, flexibility, perspective, and accuracy of these representations are continuing topics of research (source: Barbara Twersky)
Community mapping: Community maps often represent a socially or culturally distinct understanding of landscape and include information that is excluded from mainstream maps, which usually represent the views of the dominant sectors of society. This style of map can therefore pose alternatives to the languages and images of the existing power structures. Community maps often differ considerably from mainstream maps in content, appearance and methodology. Indicators used to recognise and denote community maps include the following:
• Community mapping is defined by the process of production. Community maps are planned around a consensus based goal and strategy for use and made with input from a community in an open and inclusive process.
• Community mapping is defined by the content of the maps, which depict local knowledge and information and are often aimed at addressing local issues. They contain the community’s place names, symbols, and priority features and represent local knowledge systems.
Community mapping is not necessarily defined by the level of compliance with formal cartographic conventions. Nor are they confined by formal media: a community map may be a part of a GIS or a drawing in the sand.
Compass: A device for indicating direction, traditionally by the alignment of a magnetic needle that pivots to align with the direction of the Earth's magnetic field, though some recent models use electronic circuitry instead.
Compass Survey: See Traverse.'
Contour (line): On a map a line that joins places of equal height above sea level. On a given map, contour lines are normally at specific increments, such as 25 m or 40 m, depending on the scale and the terrain.
Conversion: A form of generalization that involves changing the way a feature (or group) is represented-for example, several point features may be represented with a polygon or a long, thin area may be depicted by a line symbol.
Coordinate: A pair of numbers that gives the location of a particular place on the Earth's surface in relation to a coordinate system, such as latitude and longitude or UTM.
Coordinate system: A pattern or network of crossing lines by which a position may be determined.
Counter maps: Alternative maps, or "counter-maps", greatly increase the power of people living in a mapped area to control representations of themselves and their claims to resources. Local people may exert control directly by making their own maps or entrust a representative of their choice, such as a local NGO, to perform the task. [...] Counter-maps thus have the potential for challenging the omissions of human settlements from forest maps, for contesting the homogenization of space on political, zoning, or property maps, for altering the categories of land and forest management, and for expressing socio-spatial relationships rather than depicting abstract space in itself (Peluso, 1995). Counter-mapping can be used for alternative boundary-making and "to depict strategies of resistance: where to block [...] unwise development, to identify landscapes that have been damaged, to describe alternatives to the incremental destruction of sustaining habitats" (Aberley, 1993:4) .
Cultural mapping can be used for making intangible heritage and local and indigenous knowledge systems easily visible and understandable. It should be demand driven, contextualized and community owned and controlled. It should create intercultural dialogue and allow communities – and especially elders – to reflect on their own knowledge and listen to each other. Respectful cultural mapping can reinforce a community’s consciousness of its specific cultural traditions, resources and institutions, and also of land use practices, education, health, conflict prevention etc. It should enable communities to be better prepared to express their rights, visions and priorities – especially when confronted with development interventions initiated by a third party. (source: adapted from UNESCO, 2006)


Database: A collection of information, for instance, about a particular community. A database is most useful if it is well organized and indexed.
Datum: A point from which other things are measured. This term (in full, geodetic datum or geocentric datum) can also refer to a cartographical system (specifically, a reference ellipsoid, such as WGS84) that is used to mathematically correct for irregularities in the Earth's sphericity, such as when using the GPS.
Declination (variation): The angle between the magnetic north meridian and the true north meridian at any given location. It is said to be 'east' or 'west' by a certain number of degrees according to whether the magnetic north meridian is east or west of the true north meridian.
Degree: A unit (abbreviated as °) for measuring direction as if from the centre of a circle. There are 360 degrees in a circle. Each degree can be subdivided into 60 minutes (abbre¬viated as '). Each minute can be divided into 60 seconds (abbreviated as "). Bearings and declination, for example, are usually (but not always) measured in degrees.
Differential GPS: A method of correcting for errors in GPS coordinates by using two receivers, one to rove and collect position data, the other to remain stationary at a known position to collect correction data that is transmitted to the roving receiver (or supplied to it at a later time).
Digitize: To convert an image, such as a map. into a form that a computer can store and manipulate through the use of special software (a computer program). Digitizing is usually done manually, with a digitizing tablet, but simply scanning the image may be suitable for some purposes.
Displacement: A form of generalization that involves moving close-set map symbols slightly out of their correct locations so that they do not overlap each other. Dissolution: A form of generalization that involves combining two or more adjoining polygons representing somewhat different kinds of features into one polygon.


Easting: The part of a coordinate (such as longitude) that gives the east-west position.
Enhancement: A form of generalization - the opposite of simplification.
Ephemeral map: A temporary map such as a ground map. Intended to be kept for a short time only. This most basic mapmaking method consists in drawing maps on the ground. Informants use raw materials like soil, pebbles, sticks and leaves, to reproduce the physical and cultural landscapes in the manner they perceive them to be. Such ephemeral maps disappear in a matter of a wind blow. Acquired knowledge is memorised by participants and mentally recomposed when needed (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).
Ephemeris: A map and calendar of the movement of celestial bodies or satellites.
Equator: The great circle (0° latitude) that connects all points that are at an equal distance from the north and south poles.


Feature: A definable and relatively permanent thing on the land (such as a house, boulder, hill, river, road, boundary, field, forest type, hunting area, sacred site, etc.) that can be depicted on a map.
Field: To go into or to be in 'the field' refers to doing a field survey or field-checking a map.
Field-check: To verify the locations of features shown on a map by going out onto the land and observing - and possibly measuring - their relationships to other features. Field survey: To go out on the land to observe the features and draw a map based on first¬hand observation—rather than drawing it from memory or descriptions or by interpreting remote-sensing data (see table-top mapping).
Frame: A rectangle in which a map or a map part, such as a legend, will be (or has been) drawn. Also, a drawing of a traverse that shows just the stations and the lines that join them, without sideshots or other details.


Generalization: The choosing of features and the method of their depiction in order to draw a clear and meaningful map: aspects of generalization include aggregation, conversion, displacement dissolution, enhancement, selection, simplification, and smoothing. The degree and kind of generalization should be consistent throughout any given map.
Geographic coordinate system: The grid system of latitude and longitude.
Geographic Information Technologies (GIT): a set of computer tools (hardware and software), techniques and geographic data used to collect, store, edit, query, manage, analyse and/or display geographically referenced information in order to map phenomena, understand spatial relationships among phenomena, derive new information, and facilitate geographic problem solving. Geographic information systems (GIS), the global positioning system (GPS), and satellite/aircraft remote sensing and imaging are examples of geographic information technologies used for digital mapping, spatial analysis, and other applications requiring location-based information and analysis (Source Jefferson Fox, 2006)
Georeferenced: Refers to a map or photo that has been geographically corrected, so that every point on it shows absolute location. For example, air photos and satellite images are georeferenced to correct for scale distortions inherent in the process of collecting data through remote sensing.
GIS (Geographic Information System): A computerized system for the collection, storage, and retrieval of geographic data.
GPS (Global Positioning System): A system of artificial satellites and ground units that enables a user with a portable receiver to determine absolute locations with good accuracy.
Gradian (also called “gon’ or ‘grade’): A unit of angular measure, an alternative to degrees. There are 400 gradians in a circle (100 in a right angle), so one gradian = 0.9°.
Graph paper: Paper printed with a pattern of intersecting lines parallel to the edges and at fixed increments (such as 5 mm or 1 mm).
Graph scale: A graphic representation of map scale proportions using a bar and numbers to indicate distance.
Grid: A pattern or network of crossing lines (such as on a map) by which a position may be determined.
Grid north: North as indicated by the north meridians of a particular map projection.
Ground map: A large and temporary map (perhaps 10mx10min size), constructed outside on the ground using leaves, rocks, beans, wood, reeds, or other materials, or created indoors using hats, shoes, rope, pieces of paper, etc.


Hip chain: A measuring tool, used in surveying and worn on a belt, that consists of a small plastic box containing a roll of thread. Pulling thread out of the box operates a counter that reads distance in meters and tenths of a meter.
Horizontal distance: Distance along the horizontal (as distinguished from slope distance).


Index: An alphabetical list of keywords that indicates where in a book or database each topic is discussed or mentioned.
Index contour: A contour line that is darker or thicker than the regular ones to assist in more quickly determining elevation. Index contours usually fall every fifth (or fourth) line and represent round-number elevations, such as 250 or 500 m.
Information unit: A piece of information; for example, a story transcript, photograph, video¬tape, etc. that contains or depicts knowledge about the community, its land, its people, and its history.
Intersection: A survey technique that involves taking bearings from two known places to identify the location of a third, unknown location.


Keyword: A significant word (subject name or topic) that is used in indexing a collection of information (database) to make it easier to find specific pieces of information.
Knowledge (source: Leeuwis, 2004) can be considered as how we understand, give meaning, perceive or interpret the world around us . Knowledge is what we store in our mind and what leads us to take decisions, act and react to stimuli received from the external world. Knowledge is very subjective and builds up in everybody’s mind through a continuous learning process involving, among others, concrete experiences, interaction and communication with others, observations and reflections, formation of concepts and their testing. Three types of knowledge can be distinguished:
• Unconscious knowledge is characterised by perceptions/motives that we are not aware of.
• Tacit knowledge corresponds to knowledge that we are not immediately aware of, on which we base our day-to-day actions. This type of knowledge can be elicited through in-depth discussions and interactive exercises including the use of participatory 3D models.
• Explicit knowledge is the knowledge that we are aware of, have reflected upon and can easily capture in verbal, textual, physical or visual formats, and that transforms into information


Landmark: An obvious feature in the landscape.
LANDSAT: A specific kind of satellite image that shows a larger area than a SPOT image. Latitude: Parallel lines running east-west around the globe; measured in degrees north or south from the equator.
Legend: The part of a map (or an additional sheet) that explains what the symbols on the map mean.
Light table: A piece of drafting equipment that consists of a translucent work surface (with or without legs) with a light source beneath it, used to facilitate the copying of information from one sheet of paper (or plastic) to another.
Line feature: Something on the land that is relatively long and thin - such as a river, road, trail, or boundary; its symbol on a map may be exaggerated in width if it would otherwise be too narrow to show at scale.
Local knowledge: ‘…is the sum total of the knowledge and skills which people in a particular geographic area possess, and which enable them to get the most out of their natural environment. Most of this knowledge and these skills have been passed down from earlier generations, but individual men and women in each generation adapt and add to this body of knowledge in a constant adjustment to changing circumstance and environmental conditions’ (source: IKDM, 1998).
Local spatial knowledge (LSK) ‘… describes home and action space, is innate and sustained knowledge about the land, identifies issues of immediate significance, and encodes the information about the environment in a language a region’s inhabitants understand’ (Duerden and Kuhn, 1996). It includes:
• Specific technical knowledge known only (or in detail, primarily) to the local people, e.g. local knowledge of soils, plants, water sources, medicines. Similar to the concept of indigenous technical knowledge (ITK).
• Spatial knowledge representing different viewpoints and understandings of local actors, (different from the dominant ‘official’ view). These different viewpoints can be reflected in counter maps.
• Mental maps, which are not usually based on standard geometry.
• Spiritual or mystical spatial knowledge associated with cultural spaces,
particularly with specific areas of land or resources. This may be interpreted as cosmovisions, which commonly incorporate the origin myths of indigenous, natural resource-dependent, cultures.

Location map: A small, small-scale map that shows where the land depicted on the main map is in relation to the whole state, province, or country. Longitude: Meridian lines running north-south and joining at the poles; measured in degrees from the Prime Meridian (0°).


Magnetic dip: The angle at which the Earth's magnetic field at a particular place would tilt a freely suspended magnetic needle relative to the horizontal. Some types of compass can and should be mechanically adjusted for use in different regions of the world.
Magnetic north: The direction of the meridian along which a freely suspended magnetic needle would lie if it were influenced only by the Earth's magnetic field. Magnetic north is constantly moving, albeit so slowly that in almost all locations this movement causes only negligible error in compass use.
Map: A picture of the land, a map is a graphic representation, often two-dimensional, of some part (or all) of the Earth's surface. There are many different kinds of maps.
Map interview: The process of talking to community members and asking questions to help them record their information about the land on a map in sketch form, or in words.
Map projection: A particular way (such as UTM) of depicting the curved surface of the Earth as a two-dimensional map through the use of a specific mathematical algorithm.
Map scale: The reduction needed to display a representation of the Earth's surface on a map. A statement of a measure on the map and the equivalent measure on the Earth's surface, often expressed as a representative fraction of distance, such as 1:10,000 (one unit of distance on the map represents 10,000 of the same units of distance on the Earth).
Map series: A set of thematic maps of the same area, or a set of maps (that were made with the same process and format) to cover a region too large to fit on one map sheet at the desired scale.
Map registration: A technique by which to align two or more maps. such as an overlay map and a base map using special registration marks (or special holes and pins). Mental map: A map that represents the perceptions and knowledge that a person has of an area.
Media: mass, interpersonal or hybrid media are basis devices that help to combine different communication channels for the ‘transportation’ and exchange of ‘textual, visual, auditive, tactile and or olfactory signals. Hence different media can be used in the context of methods and methodologies (source: Leeuwis, 2004)
Mental maps: an alternative term for cognitive map. A map that represents the perceptions and knowledge that a person has of an area (source: IAPAD). Mental maps are associated with all cultures, ages, genders, types of people, though there are big cultural differences in how significant they are as spatial representations.
Meridian: A great circle around the Earth, or half of one. A meridian of longitude (or line of longitude) connects the north and south poles. The meridian of longitude that passes through any particular point can be called the north meridian for that point.
Methodologies are basically more or less a series of predefined steps, procedures and activities. Each step can involve the use or one or several methods. Methodologies are often known under a particular label or acronym, e.g. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).
Methods can be seen as a particular mode of using media and media combinations within the context of a confined activity. A method can (but need not) be and element in a methodology. Examples of methods include a workshop, a discussion group, a farm visit, a priority ranking (an element of e.g. PRA) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).
Mosaicing is the process of assembling a series of images and joining them together to form a continuous seamless photographic representation of the earth’s surface. These can be done manually on aerial photos or digitally with remote sensing images and scanned aerial photos or digital aerial photos (source: Silika Tuivanuavou, 2006).
Metre tape: A measuring tool used in surveying that is marked in meters. Basic models consist of a rolled nylon or fiberglass tape that extends to 30 or 50 m.
Mylar: A particular kind of drawing 'paper' made of plastic. It is available with one or both sides 'frosted' (matte) to take pencil or drawing ink.


NGO (Non-Governmental Organization): An organization, usually with humanitarian or environmental protection objectives, that is not controlled by a government, though it may operate with the assistance of government funding. Many NGO projects are intended to aid indigenous peoples to protect or improve their quality of life.
North line: A line drawn on a map so as to align with a north meridian. It provides a refer¬ence line by which to measure bearings by using a compass or protractor.
Northing: The part of a coordinate (such as the latitude) that gives the north-south position.


Offset: The perpendicular distance from a traverse line to a parallel line or to a point.
Orientation: The positioning of a map so that its north line points to the Earth's true north.
Orthophoto: A perspective aerial photograph contains image displacements caused by the tilting of the camera and terrain relief (topography). It does not have a uniform scale. Distances cannot be measured on a conventional aerial photograph like one can do on a map. In an orthophoto the effects of tilt and relief are removed from the aerial photograph by the rectification process. Therefore an orthophoto is a uniform-scale photograph or photographic map. Since an orthophoto has a uniform scale, it is possible to measure directly on it like other maps. An orthophoto may serve as a base map onto which other map information may be overlaid (Source: U.S. Geological Survey)
Overlay map: A thematic map on tracing-paper (or on a plastic sheet) that is used in conjunction with a base map.


Panorama sketch: A landscape sketch made from a location that has a view of the surround¬ing terrain for a fair distance.
Parallel (of latitude): A circle on the Earth's surface that is parallel to the equator, but smaller and either to the north or south of it. A line of latitude.
Participatory 3D Modelling (P3DM): This method integrates indigenous spatial knowledge with data on elevation of the land and depth of the sea to produce stand-alone, scaled and geo-referenced relief models. Essentially based on indigenous spatial knowledge, land use and cover, and other features are depicted by informants on the model by the use of pushpins (points), yarns (lines) and paints (polygons). On completion, a scaled and geo-referenced grid is applied to facilitate data extraction or importation. Data depicted on the model are extracted, digitised and plotted. On completion of the exercise the model remains with the community (Source: Rambaldi and Callosa-Tarr, 2002)
Participatory GIS (PGIS) is an emergent practice in its own right. It is a result of merger between Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) methods with Geographic Information Technologies (GIT). PGISfacilitates the representation of local people’s spatial knowledge using two- or three-dimensional maps. These map products can be used to facilitate decision-making processes, as well as support communication and community advocacy. PGIS practice is geared towards community empowerment through tailored, demand-driven and user-friendly applications of these geo-spatial technologies. Good PGIS practice is flexible and adapts to different socio-cultural and biophysical environments. It often relies on the combination of ‘expert’ skills with local knowledge. Unlike traditional GIS applications, PGIS places control on access and use of culturally sensitive spatial data in the hands of those communities who generated it.
PGIS spatial analysis uses the functionality and data associated with GIS technology to explore community driven questions. In the process, local spatially referenced as well as non-spatial data are integrated and analysed to support discussion and decision-making processes. The spatial analytic functionalities allow much easier and rapid analysis by the users, of e.g. time and cost functions, of separation and contiguity, and of the effects of barriers and buffers (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).
Photographic map: see orthophoto.
PDOP (Precision Dilution of Position): PDOP is an estimate of the accuracy of a GPS position fix based on the quality of the satellite signals (which is a result of the satellite distribution at the time of the determination).
POC (Point of Commencement): The starting point for a survey route.
Point feature: Something - such as a sacred rock, house, or special tree that is too small to be drawn to scale on a particular map so it is instead represented by a standardized symbol that may be either abstract or stylized.
Polygon: A bounded area on a map that represents something (an area feature such as a lake, field, forest type, or hunting area) on the land that is large enough to be shown to scale. A polygon can be identified through the use of a particular color, pattern, or code.
Position Averaging: A method for improving the accuracy of GPS data that requires just one GPS receiver, which is set up to take a series of readings over a period of time.
PPGIS (Public Participation GIS): see ppgis
Practical ethics focuses on understanding and addressing difficult and controversial social issues arising in such fields as politics, economics, technology, healthcare, business, environmental conservation and education. Ethics more broadly investigates the meaning of the good, emphasising the role of values in raising and critically responding to questions of deep and abiding personal and common concern. Practical ethics requires resource managers who engage in mapping to follow clear protocols for explaining complex consequences of mapping to rural communities. This protocol requires outside actors to communicate clearly with each community, clarifying the purpose/objectives of collecting information, agreeing with villagers on what information can be mapped, and explaining potential consequences of recording the community's spatial information on maps that can then be copied and distributed outside the community. Most importantly, outside facilitators must communicate to villagers that they can agree to accept or reject the mapping exercise.
Prime meridian: Zero degrees longitude. Also known as the Greenwich Meridian because it was established at the Greenwich Observatory near London, England.
Projection: See map projection.
Protractor: A device, usually of clear plastic and circular or D-shaped, used to measure angles.
PRA (Participatory Rural Appraisal): A set of techniques for including the local people in the documentation and analysis of local land issues.


Radian: A unit of angular measure, an alternative to degrees. There are 2 x pi radians in a circle, so one radian is approximately 57.3°.
Reference map: A base map that has been made more locally relevant by ground-checking (and correcting if necessary) major features and adding local landmarks and place names. 'Reference map' (or reference base map) may refer specifically to the final base map on which all the information from field surveys and other sources has been compiled.
Registration marks: Small marks (usually '+' symbols) used to simplify the aligning of two or more maps (such as tracing paper or plastic thematic maps on top of a base map) so that the features on the top map(s) are in their correct positions with respect to the features on the bottom map.
Relative location: A location of a place in relation to (for example, 600 m southwest of, or 100 m downhill from) another place (usually one whose absolute location is already known).
Remote sensing: The process of gathering information about the Earth from a distance. Such data is commonly gathered by satellite or air (aerial) photography.
Resection: A survey technique that involves taking bearings to two known places to deter¬mine the location of a third, unknown location at which you are standing.
Resolution: The smallest distance or size of object that can be seen in an image (as acquired, for instance, through remote sensing).


Satellite: A platform launched into close orbit around the Earth and used to carry electronic equipment that transmits information back to Earth. Some satellites are used to transmit pictures of the Earth from space back to Earth for remote sensing applications. The GPS uses 24 satellites that were made and launched specifically for transmitting signals to GPS receivers on Earth.
Scale mapping is a more sophisticated method of sketch mapping, aimed at generating geo-referenced data to facilitate discussions and allow community members to develop maps that can stand the scrutiny of adversarial parties. The method is based on effective selection of symbols and colours for depicting indigenous spatial knowledge on transparencies superimposed on a geo-coded and scaled map (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).
Selection: A form of generalization that involves choosing which of a number of features (or which parts thereof) to show on a map while omitting others.
Selective availability: A procedure by which the United States Department of Defense (USDoD) deliberately and intermittently interferes with the signals from GPS satellites so that civilian and other non-USDoD GPS receivers cannot calculate extremely precise locations, but their own units can. The errors thus introduced must be taken into account (and perhaps strategically minimized) by civilian GPS users.
Scale: The relationship between distance on a map and on the Earth's surface, usually represented as a ratio (for example, 1:10,000) or with a graph scale.
Sideshot: Along a survey route, a short branch or spur made for the purpose of accurately recording an important feature located a short distance to one side of the route.
Simplification: A form of generalization that involves deleting some of the surveyed points that show the path of a line feature or the boundary of a polygon so as to remove excessive detail.
Sketch map: A method for mapping on paper. A drawing of a place or area, not drawn with accurate or measured scale or direction. Features are depicted by the use of natural materials or more frequently by coloured marker pens or chalk. Participants usually have a range of choices regarding what materials to use for the drawing and how to visualise desired items. Features are exaggerated in size to match the importance participants attach to them. If properly facilitated, the process is documented and records are kept in terms of the keys necessary for interpreting depicted symbols. The lack of a consistent scale and geo-referencing of the data leaves room for subjective interpretation of the final map. A scale sketch map is a sketch given scale by fitting it onto a topographic map. without a field survey. (source: Rambaldi et al, 2005).
Smoothing: A form of generalization that involves averaging (either by visual estimation or computation) the locations of the coordinates that define the surveyed path of a line feature or the boundary of a polygon so as to remove excessive detail, given the scale of the map, or to average measurement errors.
Slope Distance: A distance measured on sloping terrain that has not yet been converted to horizontal distance for plotting on a survey drawing or map.
Spatial Information Technologies (SIT): refer to Geographic Information Technologies (GIT)
SPOT: A specific kind of satellite image that covers a smaller area than a LANDSAT image and at a higher resolution (and usually at a higher cost per square kilometer).
Spot height: The exact height, shown with a number on a map of a particular place above some datum (usually mean sea level).
Station: A starting point or endpoint of a survey leg. Stations are where measurements of distance and bearings are taken and recorded, along with any relevant notes. The stations within each surveying project are sequentially numbered for identification.
Stereoscope: A device used to look at paired air (aerial) photography, making it possible to see features on the photographs in three-dimensional perspective.
Survey: To traverse a particular linear feature (such as a boundary or a river), or travel in some specific pattern across a particular area, with the purpose of recording the locations of features on the land and details about them for use in making a map. Surveying is often done with a compass and a meter tape: some surveys are done with a GPS receiver.
Survey chain: A surveying tool that consists of a nylon rope on which every tenth of a meter is marked by a metal clip.


Table-top mapping: The drawing of a map - or the addition of thematic information to an existing base map - using information from memory or from remote sensing or photographs or notes, rather than while actually out on the land doing a field survey.
Technologies consist of widespread patterns of material and conceptual practices that embody and deploy particular strategic values and meanings (Hershock 1999). Technologies are complex systems promoting and institutionalising relational patterns aimed at realizing particular ends. Technologies cannot be value neutral, and do not occur in isolation from one another but in families or lineages (Shrader-Frechette and Westra 1997; Hershock 1999). (Source: Mapping Power, 2004 Fox et al.)
Tenure mapping: this refers to a distinct genre of cartography that seems to have its roots in the cartographic evidence assembled in the early 1970s by Inuit and Cree in Quebec. This method was soon adopted by the Inuit throughout the Canadian Arctic and is now a mandatory element of over 50 territorial negotiations under way in British Columbia. Tenure mapping is about the past; asset allocation mapping is about the future (source: Peter Poole, 2006)
Thematic map: A map that depicts specific themes or sets of information; for example, forest type, land use, historical migration, property ownership, or animal habitat.
Three-dimensional (3-D): Refers to a map such as a cardboard relief map that extends above its base according to the height of the land—or to the image seen through a stereoscope.
Tools are products of technological processes. They are used by individual persons, corporations, or nations, and are evaluated based on their task-specific utility. If tools do not work, we exchange them, improve them, adapt them, or discard them (source: Fox et al., 2004. Tools and techniques are particular ways of operating a method. Whether something is defined a s a method or a tool is often debatable; the boundaries are not sharp. A ranking exercise, for example, can involve drawing a matrix in the sand and using pebbles or stones as counters, or be conducted on a sheet of paper using stickers or markers. Similarly a farm visit in which farmers’ problems are discussed can be conducted in various modes (persuasive, participatory, counselling, etc.) (source: Leeuwis, 2004).
Topographic map: A contour map that shows human-made and natural physical features. A topographic map at a scale of 1:10,000 to 1:50,000 would be a good base map.
Topography: The shape or configuration of the Earth's surface; used especially in regards to the part of it within visual range from some particular place.
Tracing paper: A lightweight and translucent drawing paper that allows the copying of images that can be seen through it.
Transect: Surveying in a straight line across the land, usually for the purpose of mapping or recording information along the line. Transects are often conducted for a resource inventory.
Transect sketch: A sketch map made by observing and drawing the features seen on both sides of the route as the mapmaker performs a transect. It can be from a bird's-eye perspective or a profile perspective.
Traverse: A survey done by walking along the ground with a compass and meter tape. The four types used in community mapping are linear, boundary (closed), grid, and radial.
Triangulation: A survey technique to find the location of an 'unknown' position on a map by using bearings to (or from) three known locations.
Type line: The outline (boundary) of a polygon drawn on a map.


UPS (Universal Polar Stereographic): A common map projection and grid system for the polar regions (poleward of 80°S and of 84°N) that is used in conjunction with the Universal Transverse Mercator grid.
UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator): A common map projection and grid system for the part of the Earth's surface between 84°N and 80°S that is widely used for topographic maps, air (aerial) photography, and satellite images. It divides this area into 1200 zones (each identified by a unique number-letter code, such as 28M) that are further subdivided and coded.


Variation: See 'Declination.' Watershed: The area that a certain river or lake and all its tributaries drain.
Visual approximation: This is a process where map readers or mapmakers make an approximation of a position of an object – or important feature, or an area of the object – just by looking at the feature on the map and plotting that feature digitally in relation to other existing features. It also refers to mapping of the new objects by mentally deducing the position and size of the object in relation to mapped features.


Waypoint: A surveying term used to describe a 'position fix' (the coordinates) of a place, especially if determined through the use of a GPS receiver. The waypoints in any given surveying project are sequentially numbered.

Adapted with permission from: Flavelle, A. 2002. Mapping our Land tanggal 28 nopember 2008 jam 13:00

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Selasa, 20 Mei 2008

Info Bencana Alam


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Jumat, 04 Januari 2008

Disaster Risk Mappers

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Kamis, 03 Januari 2008

Sistem dan Pelayanan Informasi Bencana

Jarak yang lebar antara penyelenggara kekuasaan dan publik harus dijembatani dengan kebijakan makro pemerintah dalam bidang informasi.
Yang dimaksud dengan kebijakan makro pemerintah dalam bidang informasi adalah kebijakan yang diatur oleh pemerintah untuk mengoordinasi semua aspek yang berhubungan dengan pengelolaan dan penyebaran informasi. Kebijakan informasi tersebut harus mencakup semua sumber informasi dari semua lembaga pemerintahan dan non pemerintahan (Malley, 1990 : p.89).

Kebijakan informasi tersebut harus dapat mengidentifikasi kebutuhan informasi nasional. Kebutuhan paling mendesak kebijakan informasi nasional saat ini apa? Untuk saat ini pemerintah tentunya harus membuat kebijakan informasi yang dibutuhkan bangsa saat ini, misalnya kebijakan informasi nasional dalam rangka mengatasi bencana alam (natural disaster). Kebijakan informasi tersebut harus dapat mengakomodasi secara menyeluruh distribusi nasional sumber-sumber informasi bencana, kemudian dapat memberikan contoh dalam pengadaan, pengelolaan dan penyebaran informasi bencana alam beserta jenis bencana lainnya seperti bencana sosial, bencana ekonomi maupun bencana politik.
Setelah mengidentifikasi kebutuhan informasi nasional, pemerintah tentunya harus menemukan jalan keluar untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut. Selanjutnya pemerintah harus memublikasikan hasil dari kebijakan dan pelaksanaan dari kebijakannya tersebut, agar dapat segera ditiru oleh semua lembaga-lembaga pemerintahan dan non pemerintahan. Dalam prakteknya nanti kebijakan informasi nasional bukan lagi sepenuhnya tanggung-jawab pemerintah, tetapi menjadi tanggung-jawab bersama. Interaksi yang sinergi antara pemerintah dan swasta menjadi elemen kunci dalam pelaksanaan kebijakan informasi secara keseluruhan.
Bicara masalah informasi tentu erat kaitannya dengan komunikasi. Proses saling berbagi atau menggunakan informasi secara bersama, dan pertalian antara para peserta dalam proses informasi, disebut komunikasi. Proses yang mendasar dalam komunikasi adalah penggunaan bersama. Pengertian ini lebih tepat untuk melukiskan suatu proses komunikasi daripada kata-kata “mengirim” atau “menerima”. Mengapa demikian? Karena penggunaan bersama berarti bahwa seseorang atau kelompok melakukan sesuatu atau memberi kepada seseorang atau kelompok yang lain, dalam hal ini adalah pemerintah dan publik.
Penggunaan bersama berarti suatu hal yang dilakukan oleh dua orang atau lebih bersama-sama, mereka berpartisipasi secara bergabung atau bersama. Berpartisipasi artinya berinteraksi dengan pihak-pihak lain dalam pikiran, wacana, perasaan atau kegiatan tertentu. Jadi saling berbagi atau menggunakan sesuatu hal yang sama secara bersama, bentuk komunikasi antara birokrat dan rakyat yang seperti ini yang akan mendukung demokratisasi penanggulangan dan pemulihan bencana.
Demokrasi dan akuntabilitas pemerintahan akan terwujud apabila akses informasi publik dalam bidang apapun (termasuk prediksi, penanggulangan dan pemulihan bencana) dibuka seluas mungkin. Dibukanya akses informasi publik akan mencegah kita untuk tidak terjebak lagi dalam pemerintahan yang otoriter dalam menanggulangi dan pemulihan kembali akibat bencana alam. Kehidupan demokrasi yang ideal juga berawal dari sini karena informasi yang akurat dan transparan akan mengundang individu atau kelompok masyarakat untuk ikut serta berdebat dan berwacana dalam penyelesaian problem kehidupan dengan segala aspeknya. Tentu akan lebih bijak apabila semua elemen masyarakat Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam dan Nias dilibatkan dalam pembangunan kembali NAD serta Nias begitu juga dengan daerah-daerah lain yang mengalami berbagai bencana.
Hak-hak publik atas informasi adalah hal utama bagi sebuah negara demokrasi modern. Ihwal mula merebaknya praktik KKN, pelanggaran HAM, dan berbagai bentuk penyalahgunaan kekuasaan lain selama Orba karena publik tak mempunyai perangkat politik guna mengontrol penyelenggaraan kekuasaan di semua lini dan level (Agus Sudibyo : 2004).
Manajemen informasi diperlukan berdasarkan penelitian bahwa informasi sangat penting untuk kesuksesan suatu usaha dan peningkatan produktifitas sektor-sektor publik. Manajemen informasi yang baik dapat menghindari kesalahpahaman dan meningkatkan kinerja organisasi secara keseluruhan. Departemen pemerintahan, prasarana publik, institusi pemerintahan lokal memerlukan kebijakan dan strategi pengelolaan informasi yang tepat.
Cakupan kebijakan informasi meliputi, pertama, legislatif. Legislatif harus memberikan kebijakan yang berkaitan dengan informasi seperti payung hukum untuk perlindungan data, kebebasan memperoleh informasi publik, HaKi dsb. Dua, regulasi bidang informasi. Tiga, pembangunan infrastruktur informasi. Empat, ketetapan layanan, perlu kebijakan yang mengatur pengembangan dan arus penyebaran informasi pemerintahan. Lima, kebijakan dalam bidang pendidikan yang bisa memasok profesional informasi yang handal. Enam, kebijakan pembudayaan informasi yang bersifat nasional (Paul Sturges, 1997 : p.198-199).
Strategi informasi yang harus dilakukan prasarana publik misalnya, aktif mencari informasi yang sedang berkembang. Ini tentunya harus sesuai dengan tugas dan bidangnya, kemudian mengolah informasi dengan benar, menyebarkan informasi yang dimilikinya kepada masyarakat dan selalu siap jika diminta oleh pihak yang “berwenang” dalam rangka menyelesaikan atau menangani sesuatu. Inilah peran yang kita tunggu-tunggu selama ini. Saat ini diperlukan cara pandang yang berbeda dan cerdas guna mengikuti perkembangan masyarakat. Masyarakat mencari informasi, sama seperti masyarakat mencari kebutuhan pokok dan informasi saat ini juga merupakan kebutuhan pokok.
Fungsi informasi secara sosial budaya salah satunya adalah saling mengakrabkan, bahkan bisa meningkatkan integrasi sosial masyarakat dan pada akhirnya akan mereduksi dan mengakhiri konflik. Dengan meningkatnya pengertian sosial akan meningkat pula solidaritas sosial masyarakat. Hal ini pulalah yang menjadi pengikat komponen bangsa satu sama lain sebagai sebuah kesadaran penuh tentang nilai-nilai absolut antar manusia yang dianggap baik, adil, demokratis, bijaksana serta damai. Semua proses tersebut akan lancar apabila ada perbaikan dan pengembangan sistem serta pusat informasi di lembaga-lembaga publik.
Surabaya, 31 Maret 2005
Penulis :
V. Eko Yunas Priyanto
Pustakawan Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya dan
Pendiri “Infopreneur123”: Information Retrieval, Research & Analysis Surabaya
Jl Dinoyo 42-44 Surabaya 60265
Telp. Kantor 031-5678478 eks 196
Telp. Flexi 031-70917553
e-mail :

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